The best mosques in West Africa

West Africa is renowned for its unusual Islamic architecture.

From Ghana to Mali to the Ivory Coast – here are some places you shouldn’t miss.

Djenné Mosque, Mali

This is the largest mud structure in the world, and must also have a claim to be the most beautiful. Standing 18.5m tall, it dominates Djenné’s central square and is the town’s pièce de résistance. The present-day mosque dates from 1907 and its architecture is classically Sudanese.

Djenne Mosque Mali BluesyPete Wikimedia Commons
This is quite possibly the most spectacular mud structure in the world © BluesyPete, Wikimedia Commons

The three minarets are each more than 10m high and, along with the rest of the structure, are riddled with bunches of wooden sticks or toron. The ends of these bits of wood sticking out of the façade do actually serve a purpose, not only as decoration, but also as scaffolding when repairs become necessary. For example, each year before the start of the rainy season, the people of Djenné volunteer to resurface the mosque with a new layer of banco by hand. Huge quantities of banco are hauled up to the Djennenké, whose feet seek support on the wooden protrusions. This massive event is known as Crépissage and usually takes place in April. 

Djingareiber Mosque, Mali

Three mosques in Timbuktu are classified as World Heritage Sites, but the oldest Djingareiber Mosque, is arguably the most interesting and probably the landmark most closely associated with the town.

Djingareyber Mosque, Timbuktu Mali by United Nations Photo, Flickr
This is the oldest of Timbuktu’s three UNESCO-listed mosque © United Nations Photo, Flickr 

Built in 1325 by an Andalucian architect and poet, Es Saheli, on the orders of Kankan Moussa, who had just returned from his pilgrimage to Mecca full of religious zeal, the Djingareiber Mosque is shaped like a pyramid at its base and has conical towers.

There is a platform at the top with good views of the city and upon which René Caillié apparently made some of his notes. However, entrance is currently closed to the public. This is for two reasons: first, renovations, and secondly, as in Djenné, infidels. Still it’s a sight not to be missed, particularly on a Friday when 15,000 people flock to the mosque to pray.

Larabanga Mosque, Ghana

Arguably the best-known and possibly oldest of the few West Sudanese structures that survive in northern Ghana, Larabanga Mosque is a broadly rectangular timber-frame structure whose whitewashed mud walls are supported by around a dozen bulbous buttresses spiked with protruding timber struts.

Larabanga Mosque is one of the best examples of Sahelian architecture in West Africa © Ariadne Van Zandbergen
Larabanga Mosque is one of the best examples of Sahelian architecture in West Africa © Ariadne Van Zandbergen

The tallest parts of this rather surreal apparition are the mihrab and minaret, which take the form of pyramidal towers rising almost twice as high as the main building. The western wall is shaded by a baobab that some claim matches the building itself for antiquity. Not only is Larabanga a masterpiece of West Sudanese architecture, but it is also an important pilgrimage site for local followers of Islam.

Grand Mosque, Burkina Faso

Across the road from the old city, Bobo’s old mosque is the largest in Burkina Faso, and a quintessential example of Sudanese mud-brick architecture. It is the result of both religious devotion and a neat piece of politics by the King of Sya.

Grand Mosque Bobo-Dioulasso Burkina Faso by Jim O'Brien
This is the largest mosque in Burkina Faso © Jim O’Brien 

Menaced by the King of Kenedougou, Sya’s monarch sought the help of the Almamy Sidiki Sanou, an Islamic religious leader, who lent his military aid in return for the construction of a town mosque. King Tieba of Kenedougou was stopped 30km short of Sya, and work on the mosque began at the start of the 1890s. Although it recalls the mosque at Djenné, with its distinctive ‘sugarloaf ’ minarets, the banco construction here has been whitewashed. 

Sorobango Mosque, Ivory Coast

Erected in the 17th century according to the inimitable Sudanic sensibility, this Ivory Coast treasure has russet clay and tree bark walls that must be renovated after every wet season and pyramidal pillars that, in the old days, would be crowned by an ostrich egg.

This animist motif pre-dating Islam was believed by the West African Muslims of the time to protect the narrow, tapered tops of the pillars from the ravages of the weather. Later on, the ostrich egg was superseded by ceramic imitations of eggs, some of which are still intact in the 2000m2 mosque.

Grand Mosque, Benin

Originally a church, this ornate Baroque structure in Porto-Novo is painted in so many dazzling hues that, if someone made the effort to clean it once in a while, it could make the average Beninese woman’s dress seem sober by comparison.

Grand Mosque Porto-Novo Benin by Stuart Butler
Porto-Novo’s Grand Mosque was originally a church © Stuart Butler 

Rumour has it that this building provided the inspiration for the colourful churches of Sao Salvador de Bahia, the Brazilian port city built on money from the slave trade. The somewhat run-down state of the building means that today it’s only ever used for Friday prayers (the most important day of prayer for Muslims).

The rest of the time Porto-Novo’s Muslim population head next door to the intensely ugly 1970s-era mosque. The Grand Mosque is normally kept locked but by asking in neighbouring shops you should be able to locate the Mullah who will normally allow you inside for a nominal tip. There are good views over the city from the roof.

Great Mosque, Senegal

This is the most important Murid monument in Senegal, sitting on a great square at the centre of Touba. Avenues converge on it from all directions and its tallest minaret can be seen from far and wide. Construction began in 1931 but was interrupted in 1939 by World War II; work resumed in 1948 and the mosque was inaugurated in 1963.

Great Mosque Touba Senegal by Franco Visintainer Wikimedia Commons
This important mosque originally had five minarets © Franco Visintainer, Wikimedia Commons

It has three large domes; the one in the northeast corner rises above Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba’s tomb. The mosque originally had five minarets; two more were added in 2014. The towering central minaret (87m), known as ‘Lamp Fall’, is a popular Murid symbol. The mosque was extended in 1987–88 when prayer galleries were added, and it was entirely resurfaced in white and pink marble in 1996–97. 

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