Estonia - At a glance

Estonia at a glanceA wooden ship in the harbour in Tallinn, Estonia by KSLight, Shutterstock

Location Northern Europe; borders with Russia and Latvia. Tallinn, the capital, is 85km from Helsinki, 320km from St Petersburg, and 1,800km from London.

Climate Winter temperatures range between –5 and 5°C although shortspells of much colder weather also occur. Summer temperatures of 20°C are normal, though occasionally temperatures reach 30°C. There is no identifiable rainy season.

Status Parliamentary democracy

Population 1,286,540 (2012 census)

Life expectancy Men 65, women 75

Capital Tallinn (420,000 inhabitants)

Major towns Tartu (98,000), Narva (63,000), Kohtla-Järve (39,000), Pärnu (42,000)

(Photo: A wooden vessel in the harbour in Tallinn © KSLight, Shutterstock)

Administrative divisions 15 counties (maakond), 193 townships (vald)

People Ethnic Estonian 68%, ethnic Russian 25%, other racial backgrounds 7%

Language Estonian, a member of the Finno-Ugric group

Religion Predominantly Lutheran, though all major faiths are represented in the population

Currency Euro divided into 100 cents; for up-to-date exchange rates, go to

National airport/airline Tallinn/Estonian Air

International dialling code +372

Time GMT and BST +2hrs

Electricity 220 volts, 50Hz

Flag Horizontal blue–black–white

National anthem Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm’ (My fatherland, my joy and happiness)

National flower Cornflower

National bird Barn swallow

Public holidays 1 January (New Year), 24 February (Independence Day), Good Friday, 1 May (May Day), 23 June (Victory Day), 24 June (Midsummer), 20 August (Re-Independence Day), 25 and 26 December (Christmas)

Back to the top

Estonia articles

View all

The best spring getaways

Whether you're looking for a romantic break, wanting to roam alone, or seeking a family holiday over Easter, we know where to go.


12 of Europe’s most impressive castles

From complex histories to spectacular architecture, castles have so much to offer. 


13 European national parks that you’ve probably never heard of

There are many national parks in Europe that remain fairly unknown. Here you can discover 13 of the best. Why miss out on visiting somewhere spectacular? 


Related guides and other books

View all