Land area 26,340 km² (less than half that of Scotland)

Location 120km south of the Equator

Capital Kigali

Rainfall Annual average 900–1,600mm; rainy seasons March–May and October–December

Average temperature 24.6–27.6˚C; hottest August and September

Altitude From 1,000 to 4,500m above sea level; highest point is Mt Karisimbi (4,507m)

Terrain Mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east

Vegetation Ranges from dense equatorial forest in the northwest to tropical savannah in the east

Land use 47% cropland, 22% forest, 18% pasture, 13% other

Natural resources Some tin, gold and natural gas

Main exports Coffee and tea

National parks Volcanoes (northwest); Nyungwe (southwest); Akagera (east); Gishwati-Mukura (west)

Human statistics

Population 11.9 million (2017 estimate)

Life expectancy at birth 64 years

Religion Roman Catholic (majority), Protestant, Muslim, traditional

Official languages Kinyarwanda, English, French. Swahili is widely spoken.

Education Primary, secondary, technical/vocational, higher/university

GDP per capita US$2,000 (2016 estimate)


Government Multi-party democracy dominated by the RPF, which won 99% of the vote in the 2017 presidential election and 76% in the 2013 parliamentary election

Ruling Party Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF)

President Paul Kagame

Prime Minister Edouard Ngirente

National flag Blue, yellow and green, with a sun in the top right-hand corner

Administrative divisions 4 intara (provinces) plus Kigali City, subdivided into 30 uturere (districts; singular akarere) and 416 imirenge (sectors, singular umurenge)

Practical details

Time GMT +2 hours

Currency Rwandan franc (for up-to-date exchange rates, go to

Main health risk Malaria

Electricity 230/240 volts at 50Hz

International telephone country code 250

Airport Kigali International, Bugesera International (under construction)

Nearest seaports Mombasa (1,760km); Dar es Salaam (1,528km)