Explore England’s history with this selection of our favourite ruins in the country. Castles, abbeys, Roman ruins and even RAF bases, there’s something here for almost everyone.
© Chris Kirk, Wikimedia Commons
If ever a place could be described as having a chequered history, then this abbey in the North York Moors is it: founded by Saxons, destroyed by Vikings, rebuilt by Normans, dismantled by Tudors and bombarded by Germans. This won’t be the final chapter: when the abbey was built it stood half a mile from the sea but in the intervening 900 years that distance has been reduced to 200 yards by the erosional power of the North Sea. In a few more hundred years, the stones of the abbey will be on the beach growing seaweed.
From the Cornish clifftop path, the once fortified island reveals itself in all its natural grandeur. It has been well established that a 5th- or 6th-century monastery and trading post stood here, and relics of Mediterranean oil and wine jars have been found. The Arthurian connection is largely due to Geoffrey of Monmouth’s 12th-century manuscript, which makes Tintagel the place of Arthur’s conception, and a century later Prince Richard – the Earl of Cornwall responsible for building Launceston Castle’s stone walls – used the myth to reinforce his own magisterial status in Cornwall.
© David Hughes/Shutterstock
The ruins seen today are the remnants of the castle Prince Richard built. But Arthur’s name remains more potent at Tintagel than Richard’s; and when a piece of inscribed slate was discovered during excavations on the island in 1998, pro-Arthurian excitement knew no bounds. In Latin, it read: ‘Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had [this] made.’ Cynics may shrug, but in the end, the place, in all its wild and windblown glory, is bigger than the academic disputes that surround it. (I reserve my cyncism for the village, which having been known to all and sundry as Trevena for the best part of a millennium, adopted the name of its castle as a marketing ploy in the mid 19th century, when Pre-Raphaelite interest in the Arthurian legend was at its peak and tourism was booming.)
Moreton Corbet Castle
© Gordon Dickens
In the Shropshire village of Moreton Corbet, this ruined shell of a medieval stronghold and an ambitious Italianate mansion begun in the late 15th century. This is a romantic and peaceful picnic spot on the right day, but watch out for the ghost of Paul Holmyard, a Puritan cast out by his neighbour Sir Vincent Corbet. For more on the castle, click here.
Sherborne Old Castle
© Chris Pole/Shutterstock
This atmospheric ruin lies to the east of the Dorset town, in the grounds of the new Sherborne Castle, and is all that remains of the original, which was destroyed by Cromwell’s troops during the Civil War. It reportedly took 16 days for Cromwell’s men to bring the castle down in 1645; only the imposing gatehouse, parts of the keep and the outer walls survive, surrounded by a moat. The entrance passes over a modern bridge with the piers of the medieval one beneath it. It is a serene spot with fine beech trees, views of the surrounding countryside and the town. It oozes history and mystery, conjuring up images of medieval banquets and battles.
© David Street, Greater Yarmouth Tourism
The impressive Roman ruins of Burgh Castle (originally known as Gariannonum) loom above the confluence of the Yare and Waveney in Norfolk. With massive 3rd-century walls sloping at a precarious angle above the river and reed beds, it’s certainly an impressive spot (free access) and well worth the effort of walking to along the estuary bank from Yarmouth. The castle’s crucial strategic position is self-evident; these massive brick and flint fortifications were abandoned at the beginning of the 5th century when the Romans finally thought better of occupying such intractable northern territory. It is possible that Burgh Castle also marks the location of Cnobheresburg, a 7th-century monastery founded by Saint Fursa, the first Irish missionary in southern England. Whether or not the monastery’s actual site was within these walls or elsewhere on this coast is open to debate; either way, subsequent attacks by Danish raiders soon encouraged Fursa to decamp to the relative safety of France.
St Edmund’s Abbey
Most of the abbey has been destroyed, but it is pleasant to walk in the gardens and look back at the ruins © Tanya Dedyukhina, Wikimedia Commons
St Edmund’s Abbey in Suffolk was destroyed at the time of the Dissolution, but the pleasant Abbey Gardens, created in 1831 with flower beds and ornamental trees, that occupy its former expansive grounds provide a restful space to wander in and contemplate the time when the site may have been the East Anglian equivalent of Glastonbury. Strolling around the gardens and seeing the extent of the ruins it is astonishing to realise just how large the original abbey church must have been before it was destroyed during the reign of Henry VIII, its stone cladding plundered for use in other buildings around the town. Before its destruction the abbey would have been the largest Romanesque church in Europe, something akin to Ely Cathedral today. A model of how the abbey complex would once have looked can be seen in the gardens. All that remains intact of the original complex are St Mary’s Church south of the gardens, which was also once part of the abbey complex, and two gatehouses: Abbey Gate, rebuilt in the 14th-century, the main entrance into the gardens, which was formerly the secular entrance to the abbey used by servants, and the earlier Norman Gate, which served as the gateway into the abbey church and St Edmund’s shrine, and which still serves as the belfry of St Edmundsbury Cathedral.
© Glyn Swanson, Shutterstock
With its crumbling stone and great arched windows, the atmospheric Peak District ruin of Peveril Castle is one of England’s earliest Norman fortresses. The site was founded sometime after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The castle is named after William Peveril, the King’s agent for the Royal Forest of the Peak – basically one big hunting playground created for the pleasure of the royal family. The ruin of the stone keep that stands today was built by Henry II in 1176. Only a partial shell remains of the original, but there’s enough to give the visitor a good idea of what the castle was like. Tucked away in one corner of the keep, there’s a garderobe – a medieval toilet, a hole that drops away to ground far below it. Judging by the less than sweet aroma, modern-day visitors have been trying it out. History apart, it’s well worth the effort of making the steep ascent to the castle for the extensive and rather lovely views over to Cavedale, Castleton, the Hope Valley, Mam Tor and the wider Dark Peak.
Fountains Abbey & Studley Royal
© PublicDomainPictures.net/Wikimedia Commons
The remains of the Cistercian foundation of Fountains Abbey, four miles southwest of Ripon in the Yorkshire Dales and just a few fields away from Markenfield Hall, constitute the ultimate romantic ruin. Yes, it would be wonderful to see it as it once stood, but there’s a certain charm in willowy grasses and ivy growing out of the roof, wild figs sunning themselves in the abbey courtyard and every crevice and archway stuffed with wild scabious waving in the wind that blows along the valley of the River Skell, and the soothing sound of its waters rushing past the ruins to the adjacent Fountains Mill. The Cistercian monks certainly knew how to pick a good location. We have Henry VIII and his iron will to crush Catholicism to thank (if you can really use the word) for the flora and being able to watch the birds flutter in and out under the vaulted arches of the old refectory. There’s a steep climb beyond the river valley but take a wander up to the secret lookout named Anne Boleyn’s Seat (is that title given in jest with a hint of irony?) and you’ll appreciate all the more how magnificent the abbey would once have been.
Bodiam Castle in its consciously landscaped setting © Markus Gann, Shutterstock
Swans paddle around the lilies in the water-filled moat surrounding this most perfect-looking of medieval castles, in the Rother valley, Sussex. Although a ruin, Bodiam Castle is a substantial one, and has retained much of its original appearance from outside. A knight of Edward III, Sir Edward Dalyngrigge, began it in 1385, justifying it by fears of a French invasion – though it seems to have been built more for display than defence, at the centre of an early ‘designed landscape’. Dalyngrigge created the quadrangular plan with massive drum towers at each corner, two gate towers and the top robustly crenellated, using heavy military symbolism. The portcullis is thought to be the oldest in England.
Woodchester mansion’s exterior © Caroline Mills
Hidden among the trees in this secluded Cotswolds' valley, a mile from any road, is one of the most secret of houses, the 19th-century Victorian Gothic Woodchester Mansion. It’s also one of the most memorable houses in the whole of the Cotswolds, indeed Britain, made all the more special because it will never be completed. Woodchester Mansion has no glass in the windows, limited staircases and barely any floors. It is not a derelict ruin, though the masterpiece was mysteriously abandoned mid construction in 1873. The listed building, completed externally but not internally, is an extraordinary architectural exhibit, the craftsmanship second to none, and your imagination is required to finish the house. Intricately carved corbels, butted against the walls, stand ready to receive vaulted ceilings that never materialised, Gothic arches are part-finished and the marks of the builder’s pencil are poised for a non-existent completion. Time really does stand still here.
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