The most impressive lakes in the world

02/08/2018 16:35

Written by Bradt Travel Guides

Think of great lakes and you'll probably envisage the likes of Superior, Michigan and Erie, but how many of these lesser-known bodies of water do you recognise? 

Iskanderkul, Tajikistan

Lake Iskanderkul Tajikistan by Pavel Svoboda Photography, ShutterstockThe name 'Iskanderkul' means 'Alexander's Lake' © Pavel Svoboda Photography, Shutterstock

If you stare into the waters of the lake here at midnight, you’ll see Alexander the Great, resplendent in golden armour, ride forth on the back of his horse, Bucephalus. Or so the locals say. (For those whose Persian is a little rusty, Iskanderkul means ‘Alexander’s Lake’.) Most visitors might be a little sceptical, but doesn’t stop most looking out into the inky blackness just in case. Conversely, during the new moon if the sky is cloudless, it shimmers with flickering stars. Just another reason to stay up past bedtime. The water is an amazingly bright shade of turquoise, and with the snow-capped mountains in the background it looks picturesque from any angle.

Kivu, Rwanda

Lake Kivu Rwanda by Ariadne Van ZandbergenLake Kivu is the largest freshwater body in Rwanda © Ariadne Van Zandbergen, Africa Image Library

Sharing a border with the DRC, the 2,370km² Lake Kivu is the country’s largest freshwater body, one of a string of mountain-ringed ‘inland seas’ that submerge much of the Albertine Rift floor as it runs southward from Sudan to Zambia. It is a very beautiful lake, hemmed in by steeply terraced escarpments containing several peaks of 2,800m or higher, including the smoking outline of volcanic Nyiragongo in the far north, and it has long served as a popular weekend getaway for residents of this otherwise landlocked country.

Lago Niassa (Lake Malawi), Malawi

Lago Niassa Lake Malawi Malawi Mozambique by Ariadne Van Zandbergen, Africa Image LibrarySpanning across both Malawi and Mozambique, Lago Niassa is the third-largest lake on the continent © Ariadne Van Zandbergen, Africa Image Library

The third-largest lake in Africa and running for 585km from north to south and 75km from east to west, this is a remarkable body of water. Sitting at the southern end of the Rift Valley system, an immense geological scar that cuts through Africa all the way from the Red Sea to the Zambezi Valley, this vast lake is up to 700m deep, hemmed in by the dramatic mountains of the Rift Valley escarpment, tower more than a kilometre above its surface in places. Known for its thrillingly clear water and relatively low pollution levels, it probably harbours a greater variety of fish than any other lake in the world, including hundreds of endemic cichlid species.

Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan

Lake Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan by Novoselov, ShutterstockTranslating from Kyrgyz as 'warm lake', Issyk-Kul never freezes © Novoselov, Shutterstock

The second-largest alpine lake in the world after Titicaca in Bolivia/Peru, Issyk-Kul is unique in that the waters here never freeze. Despite its mountainous location at about 1,606m above sea level high in the Tien Shan range, where temperatures can drop to less than –25°C, the shores of the lake have a microclimate that is relatively balmy – it is apt, therefore, that the lake’s name literally means ‘warm lake’ in Kyrgyz. Scientists have long discussed the principles behind this, and it would seem it is down to a combination of deep-water physics, slight salinity and underground thermal activity.

Ohrid, Macedonia

Lake Ohrid Macedonia by djuffa, ShutterstockUNESCO-listed Lake Ohrid is said to be the most diverse lake of its size in the world © djuffa, Shutterstock

Located in the southwest corner of the country, this is the oldest continuously existing lake in Europe, some three to five million years old. Both Lake Ohrid and Ohrid town are UNESCO-protected, and not without good reason – some scientists have said that it may be the most diverse lake in the world in terms of its size. A tectonic lake almost 300m in depth with endemic plant and animal life, Ohrid offers a number of underwater attractions to the scuba diver, including Bronze-Age villages, sunken war vessels and a variety of marine flora and fauna. Back on land, the crystal clear waters beckon in the long hot days of summer, followed by a cocktail at one of the waterfront cafés.

Balaton, Hungary

Lake Balaton Hungary jenny, ShutterstockLake Balaton is known as the 'Hungarian sea' by locals © jenny, Shutterstock

The largest lake in central Europe, Balaton is known by locals as the ‘Hungarian sea’, and not without due reason. With a length of 77km and a total area of 600km2, it is quite the vast body of water, and its shallow depth (particularly on the southern side) – on average, just 2–3m – means both that it is relatively family-friendly and that it warms up quickly in the sun. During the communist period, the lake represented a convenient meeting place for those divided by the Berlin Wall, and Germans continue to provide a decent chunk of the tourist revenue. The water harbours plenty of fish such as carp, bream and native fogas (pike-perch), and is a popular place for windsurfing and rowing.

Boiling Lake, Dominica

Boiling Lake Dominica by Paul CraskBoiling Lake is, in fact, a deep fumarole © Paul Crask 

Dominica’s Boiling Lake is considered to be the second-largest of its kind in the world (just behind Frying Pan Lake and the connected Inferno Crater Lake in the Waimangu Volcanic Rift Valley on the North Island of New Zealand). It is an extremely large and deep fumarole whose gases rise from a magma chamber and superheat the ground water turning it into steam and forcing it up to the surface where it condenses to water and is trapped within a volcanic crater. It’s also the focal point of some of the island’s greatest hiking trails, although recent devastations (Tropical Storm Erika and Hurricane Maria) have left a severe amount of damage and destruction in their wake.

Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe

Lake Kariba houseboat Zimbabwe by Lynn Y, ShutterstockLake Kariba boasts its very own type of accommodation: the Kariba houseboat © Lynn Y, Shutterstock

This is one of the largest manmade lakes in the world, some 223km long and 40km wide. Viewed by the locals as the landlocked country’s main ‘seaside’ resort, Kariba is a laid-back holiday playground with a wide choice The lake even features its own accommodation speciality, the houseboat, so Zimbabweans flock here with family and friends for fishing, boating or just to chill out with a crate or eight of beers (although ‘chill out’ may be misleading in this area of stifling summer temperatures and humidity). of water- and land-based activities.


For more information, check out our comprehensive guides:

Dominica the Bradt Guide by Paul Crask Kyrgyzstan the Bradt Guide Macedonia the Bradt Guide Malawi the Bradt Guide  

Rwanda the Bradt Guide by Philip Briggs Tajikistan the Bradt Guide Zimbabwe the Bradt Guide by Paul Murray    

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